|Cross of Sarzana, 1138,|
Guglielmo de Sarzana
|Crucifix of San Domenico, Arezzo, 1265-70m|
The earliest of these dates from around 1138, done by Guglielmo da Sarzana (above left). Like nearly all crucifixes from the twelfth century, the crucified Christ is depicted in a rigid, standing position, in this case seeming very much alive, and one might even say looking none the worse for wear. Far from the simple Roman cross we know today, the design was really quite complex with all four points having rectangular additions and in the Sarzana example, a richly illustrated cape-like panel surrounding the body of Christ (which seems to have a rather feminine appearance in this case) By 1265 when the well-known Italian painter, Cimabue created a crucifix for San Domenico, Arezzo (above right), the figure was much more like that with which we are familiar, an idealized contrapposto to the body, some attempt at anatomical rendering, and a definite lifeless quality.
Crucifix of Santa Maria Novella, 1290, Giotto